The flora on Antarctica is very limited due to its isolation and extreme conditions. There are about 360 terrestrial and freshwater species of Algae and 350/400 species of Lichens which mainly grow on rocks. Two flowering plants, a Grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) and a Pearlwort (Colobanthus Quitensis), 75 species of Moss are also components of the vegetation communities. Some plants can survive for 2000 years and neither species grow more than 3 cm in height.
The flora in the Subantarctic Islands is obviously richer and similar in many of the islands because of the similar climate and geological history. Dense, Tall tussac grassland, Fernbush and Shrub land form the principal plant communities on most of the islands. Other communities include Low herbfield, Mosses, Cushion plants, Sedges and Forbs. Several islands boast native floras of 150/200 species of plants including the Falklands and Antipodes, Aukland group support 233 and the Chatham 320 species.